A few years ago, stores typically used central power to […]
A few years ago, stores typically used central power to drive all tools through belts, wheels, and drive shaft systems. Power is transmitted mechanically around the work space. Although the belts and shafts may be missing, many stores still use mechanical systems to move power around the store. It is based on the energy stored in the air under pressure, and the core of the system is an air compressor.
The biggest advantage of pneumatic is that each tool does not need its own bulky motor. Instead, a single electric motor on the compressor converts electrical energy into kinetic energy. This allows lightweight, compact, easy-to-operate tools to run quietly with less wear and tear.
Although there are compressors that use a rotating impeller to generate air pressure, positive displacement compressors are more common and include models used by homeowners, carpenters, mechanics, and contractors. Here, the air pressure is increased by reducing the size of the space containing the air. Most of the compressors you will use do this using a reciprocating piston.
Like small internal combustion engines, conventional piston compressors have a crankshaft, connecting rods and pistons, a cylinder and a valve head. The crankshaft is driven by an electric motor or a gas engine. Although some small models consist of only a pump and motor, most compressors have an air storage tank that can hold a large amount of air in a certain pressure range. The compressed air in the air tank drives the pneumatic tools, and the motor is cycled on and off to automatically maintain the pressure in the air tank.
At the top of the cylinder you will find a valve head with an intake and exhaust valve. Both are simple thin metal discs-one below and one on top of the disc. As the piston moves down, a vacuum is created above it. This allows outside air to push open the intake valve at atmospheric pressure and fill the area above the piston. When the piston moves up, the air above it compresses, keeping the intake valve closed and pushing the exhaust valve open. Air moves from the exhaust port to the water tank. Each stroke, more air enters the fuel tank and the pressure rises.
Typical compressors are available in 1- or 2-cylinder versions to suit the requirements of the tools they power. At the homeowner / contractor level, most 2-cylinder models operate in the same way as single-cylinder models, except that there are two strokes per revolution instead of one. Some commercial 2-cylinder compressors are 2-stage compressors in which a piston pumps air into a second cylinder, further increasing the pressure.
When the tank pressure reaches a preset limit (approximately 125 psi for many single-stage models), the compressor uses a pressure switch to stop the motor. However, in most cases, you don't need that much stress. Therefore, the air line will include a regulator that you can set to match the pressure requirements of the tool used. The pressure gauge before the regulator monitors the tank pressure, and the pressure gauge after the regulator monitors the air pressure. In addition, the water tank also has a safety valve, which will open if the pressure switch fails. The pressure switch can also include an unloading valve that reduces the tank pressure when the compressor is off.
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